Dermacentor reticulatus is a hard tick species with extraordinary biological features. It has a high reproduction rate, a rapid developmental cycle, and is also able to overcome years of unfavourable conditions.
Dermacentor reticulatus can survive under water for several months and is cold-hardy even Wurmeier Analyserate to other tick species. It has a wide host range: Its high adaptiveness gives an edge to this tick species as shown by new data on the emergence and establishment of D. The tick has Wurmeier Analyserate the research focus of a growing number of scientists, physicians and veterinarians.
Within the Web of Science database, more than a fifth of the over items published on this species between and appeared in the last three years — Here we attempt to synthesize current knowledge on the systematics, ecology, geographical distribution and recent spread of the species and to Wurmeier Analyserate the great spectrum of Wurmeier Analyserate veterinary and public health threats it poses.
Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis is Wurmeier Analyserate severe leading canine vector-borne disease in many endemic areas. Although less frequently than Ixodes ricinusD. Besides the dominant literature available in English, we also tried to access scientific literature in German, Russian and eastern European languages as well. We hope to inspire future research projects that are Wurmeier Analyserate to understand the basic life-cycle and ecology of this vector in order to understand and prevent disease threats.
We conclude that although great strides have Wurmeier Analyserate made continue reading our knowledge of the eco-epidemiology of this species, several gaps still need to be filled with basic research, targeting possible reservoir and vector roles and the key factors resulting in the observed geographical spread of D.
The online version of this article doi: An ideal arthropod vector has a high reproduction rate, an ability to Wurmeier Analyserate and even spread within variable habitats and an opportunity to host and transmit a great variety of pathogens. All these conditions are perfectly met by the hard tick species Dermacentor reticulatus.
Fertilised females lay up to 7, eggs [ 1 ] Wurmeier Analyserate adults possess an extreme tolerance to the changing environment. In contrast to dipteran vectors, adult D. Furthermore, the speed of its developmental rate from larvae to nymphs and again to adults surpasses I. Dermacentor reticulatus attaches and feeds on a wide range of hosts, including wild and domesticated mammals, for days at a time enabling the tick to spread over large Wurmeier Analyserate. The high adaptiveness of this species is exemplified by the recent new establishments Tabletten von Würmern D.
The multitude of pathogens that Wurmeier Analyserate potentially be transmitted by this vector highlights the long-shared evolutionary history of Wurmeier Analyserate viruses, bacteria and Wurmeier Analyserate with D.
First of all, it is a vector of pathogens causing animal health problems. Although less frequently than I. Here we Wurmeier Analyserate to summarize current knowledge on the systematics, ecology, geographical distribution and recent expansion of D. Dermacentor reticulatus Fabricius, is a metastriate tick species belonging to the almost globally cosmopolitan genus Dermacentor consisting of 35 currently recognised speciessubfamily Rhipicephalinae, family Ixodidae, order Ixodida, subclass Acari, class Arachnida [ 78 ].
It has previously been known by several junior synonym names see e. Guglielmone and Nava [ Wurmeier Analyserate ]with Dermacentor pictus Hermann, as one of the most widespread of these, especially in the former Soviet Wurmeier Analyserate and eastern Europe [ Wurmeier Analyserate article source. English names of this species used Wurmeier Analyserate scientific publications are ornate cow tick [ 12 ], ornate dog tick [ 13 ], meadow tick [ 14 Wurmeier Analyserate or Wurmeier Analyserate tick [ 15 — 17 ].
Dermacentor reticulatus can Wurmeier Analyserate unambiguously distinguished from D. Although a bit smaller than D. There are excellent keys [ Wurmeier Analyserate13 ] wie den Darm von Parasiten in der Heimat schnell zu reinigen und effizient for the morphological identification of adults using some key features such as the palps and coxae, as shown on Figs.
Like Wurmeier Analyserate species of DermacentorD. For Wurmeier Analyserate sexes, the most important feature is the presence of a palpal spur in D.
For females, most prominent details are the shape of porose areas, the shape of the gap between internal and external Wurmeier Analyserate on coxa I and the size of the Wurmeier Analyserate in the genital aperture Fig. For males, Wurmeier Analyserate are long in D. Compared to adults, larvae Fig.
They resemble Rhipicephalus spp. Engorgement modifies their morphological characters and identification requires mounting and careful examination of the specimen under light microscopy by an experienced entomologist Fig.
Most important morphological characters of female Dermacentor reticulatus. Original drawings by Alan R. Walker [ 13 ]. Wurmeier Analyserate important morphological characters of male Dermacentor reticulatus.
Photomicrograph Wurmeier Analyserate female Dermacentor reticulatus. Photomicrograph Wurmeier Analyserate male Dermacentor reticulatus. Photomicrograph of Dermacentor reticulatus. Our current check this out of life-cycle traits and ecological aspects of D. This may be partly due to the hidden nature of the larvae and nymphs of this species.
Although Wurmeier Analyserate is a three-host tick, as is I. For this reason, immatures, in contrast to adults, are rarely collected by flagging, with some exceptions [ Wurmeier Analyserate ].
Adults, in contrast, are easy to collect by flagging where they Wurmeier Analyserate abundant, and thus it is easier to gain phenology data for them. To assess seasonality or population dynamics of immatures, their preferred hosts Ich habe im Aquarium Würmer erschienen to be investigated.
Larvae usually appear on small mammal hosts in May-June, with their highest abundance in June-July in temperate Europe [ 6 Wurmeier Analyserate, 101920 ]. Dermacentor reticulatus was shown to have a higher developmental rate compared to I. Engorged larvae moult and give rise to feeding nymphs within a month and the whole generation is completed within a few months in nature [ 6 ].
The relatively rapid development is also obvious from a table that lists 37 hard tick species maintained in the laboratory, among which D. The fact that nymphs are usually active only for one month July-August [ Wurmeier Analyserate19Wurmeier Analyserate ] results in a very small window of opportunity for co-feeding larvae and nymphs.
Another difference from the ecology of I. Laboratory data show that larvae feed for 2. The large accumulation of endosomes or inclusion bodies in the gut epithelium [ 7 ] during immature feeding and rapid digestion is associated with their short premoulting period Wurmeier Analyserate 23 ].
In the more slowly moulting I. Adults are mainly active from March with a peak in April; they Wurmeier Analyserate less abundant during the summer they completely disappear from vegetation in continental climates and have a second activity peak in September-October [ 25 — 27 Wurmeier Analyserate. During Wurmeier Analyserate click to see more they undergo diapause which is different from quiescence and is defined as a neurohormonally-mediated dynamic state of Wurmeier Analyserate metabolic activity Wurmeier Analyserate 28 ].
The relatively early activation of Wurmeier Analyserate. They climb onto weeds, grasses, bushes, or other leafy vegetation as shown Wurmeier Analyserate Additional file 1: Video 1, Additional file 2: Video 2 to wait for passing hosts.
Since adult female and male specimens of D. Because of their highly sensitive chemical receptors [ 30 ] they are attracted by Wurmeier Analyserate odours, and are therefore often associated with tracks used by wildlife, dogs and humans [ Wurmeier Analyserate31 ]. At preferred sites the number of adults collected per hour per flag can reach [ 32 ].
Many authors observed female predominance in questing tick populations [ 533 — 35 ] possibly resulting from their metastriate mating strategy, i. Furthermore, females of D. In addition, females were shown Wurmeier Analyserate predominate also in artificially bred groups of D.
Adults Wurmeier Analyserate medium-sized and large mammals and tend to feed in clusters, resulting in macroscopically visible lesions with local inflammation [ 38 ].
The aggregated Wurmeier Analyserate is Wurmeier Analyserate a consequence of aggregation-attachment pheromones as shown in other metastriate ticks [ 7 ] but not studied Wurmeier Analyserate D. Females feed for 7—15 days under laboratory conditions [ 122 — 243839 ]. Balashov Wurmeier Analyserate 23 ] noted that D.
Overwintering on the host, an unusual trait among three-host go here, has also been reported for this species [ 40 ]. Ticks were observed to remain attached on domestic animals from autumn until the onset Wurmeier Analyserate warm spring weather, during which period they do not feed [ 23 ]. Another impressive trait is the amount of Wurmeier Analyserate ingested.
Although larger species e. Male individuals also attach and are able to feed for 3—5 days [ 23 ] Hans Dautel, personal communication and fertilise females exclusively on the host. Dermacentor reticulatus males remain on the host for 2—3 months [ 23 ] and Wurmeier Analyserate considered important vectors of several pathogenic agents due to Wurmeier Analyserate intermittent feeding behaviour which is a Wurmeier Analyserate epidemiological difference compared with Ixodes spp.
Oviposition lasts for 6—25 days and the new generation of larvae will hatch from the egg batch after 12—19 days [ 22 ]. The whole life-cycle Fig. Nosek [ 42 ] observed that usually unfed adults overwinter, however, overwintering of engorged females, engorged nymphs and engorged Wurmeier Analyserate also Wurmeier Analyserate during the six-year study [ 42 ].
If engorged nymphs overwinter and moult during next spring, the size of the resulting adult is considerably smaller compared to average [ 42 ]. Overwintered engorged females are also smaller in size and Wurmeier Analyserate. Both behavioural and developmental diapause described in this species are obviously biological adaptations to increase chances for survival and consequently to prolong the tick lifespan [ 23 ].
All stages of D. Wurmeier Analyserate, if the winter is relatively mild, adults of the former are active throughout the year [ 52543 ]. During a hour monitoring of Wurmeier Analyserate at a marsh site in March in Wales the minimum temperature at which D. However, considerable variation can be observed in Wurmeier Analyserate seasonal activity of adults according to differences in climatic conditions.
Wurmeier Analyserate has experimentally been observed that adults were Wurmeier Analyserate alive 2. At the eastern end of its range western Siberia adults were only active during the brief spring April-June with brief autumn activity occurring almost immediately afterwards July-September and no activity during the rest of the year.
At the western end of the range Wales, Francethey were active for most of the Wurmeier Analyserate with a short summer diapause two months, June-August and a brief winter period of inactivity one month, December-January [ 545 ].
The latter does not qualify as a true diapause [ 46 Wurmeier Analyserate since D. The winter diapause found in central Europe [ 22 ], eastern Europe and Wurmeier Analyserate Siberia [ 33 ] is likely to be a response to the harsh winter conditions, while such a diapause is not required on the western limit of the species range. In temperate Europe, adults are most active in April-May, activity declines during summer, and there is a second, usually smaller activity peak in September-October [ 4192225263345 ].
Wurmeier Analyserate Wurmeier Analyse als Pass
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